Monday, June 16, 2014

paper Environmental and Earth

berikut makalah bahasa inggris berjudul " Environment and Earth"

1.1 Background
Environmental issues is not a question of one country alone , but it is the responsibility of all nations and countries . Therefore , efforts were made to prevent more damage to the environment. As with the convening of the Earth Summit , Kiyoto Protocol , etc. . Even some countries are still using fossil fuels , trying to reduce the greenhouse effect by using natural gas fuel is economically very competitive when compared with the use of petroleum or coal . Only actual natural gas also remains cause CO2 , but much less when compared to the use of petroleum and coal .
Besides, it was also creates methane gas during the process of provision , which all can lead to environmental damage . This paper will discuss the issue of environmental damage on Earth , especially in Indonesia , following terhapap preventive efforts and sustainable development efforts .

1.2 Problem Formulation
In this paper , the problem to be addressed are :
I. Definition of the Environment and Earth ?
II . What are the causes of environmental damage in Indonesia ?
III . What are the events - events that occur in the natural destruction in Indonesia?
IV . How do I overcome it ?
V. environmental conservation efforts in sustainable development ?
1.3 Objective Problems
In this paper , a paper that will be discussed aiming to :
I. The earth damage control efforts
II . So that people can find alternatives to conserve natural resources
III . For man is more loved Environment
IV . SDA avoid crisis in the near future
V. To ensure the achievement of efficient use of resources , effective , fair , and equitable .
VI . Optimize community participation
VII . Ensuring the relevance and consistency between planning , budgeting , implementation , and pngawasan

2.1 Definition of Environment
According to the results of google sense Environment / environment is a term that encompasses all living and non-living beings in nature that exist on Earth or part of the Earth , which works naturally without excessive human intervention .

2.2 Environmental Causes Damage in Indonesia
Indonesia has 10 percent of the world's tropical forests are still tersisa.Hutan Indonesia has 12 percent of the mammal species / mammals , the owner of 16 percent of the animal species of reptiles and amphibians . 1,519 species of birds and 25 percent of the world's fish species . Most of them are endemic ( found only in the area ) .
Area of ​​native Indonesian natural forests shrink with alarming speed . Until now , Indonesia has lost 72 percent of its original forest [ World Resource Institute , 1997 ] . Indonesian Deforestation uncontrolled for decades causing shrinkage of tropical forests on a large scale . Period 1985-1997 deforestation rate recorded 1.6 million hectares per year , whereas the period 1997-2000 to 3.8 million hectares per year . This makes Indonesia is one of the places with the highest deforestation rates in the world . In Indonesia, based on the interpretation of Landsat imagery in 2000 there were 101.73 million hectares of forests and degraded land , including an area of ​​59.62 million hectares located in the forest area . [ Forestry Planning Agency , 2003 ] .
With the decrease in forest cover of Indonesia, the majority of Indonesian region has become an area that is prone to disasters , both droughts , floods and landslides . From 1998 until mid-2003 , there have been 647 disasters in Indonesia, with 2022 casualties and the loss of billions of dollars , of which 85 per cent of these disasters are floods and landslides caused by deforestation [ National Coordinating Agency for Disaster Management , 2003 ] .
Disadvantages of formal rules governing the rights of public and private ownership led to the use of fire as a weapon in land tenure conflicts . Fire is also used by small landholders to clear land for growing crops and industry , by the migrants , by shifting cultivators and hunters and fishermen . Deforestation and degradation of natural forests provide wood waste flammable - terrestrial landscape and create more fire prone .

2.3 Events Natural Damage in Indonesia
2 Occurs naturally include:
a) Earthquakes
An earthquake is the vibration of the earth's crust that can be caused by several things , including the activities of magma ( volcanic activity ) , absence of movements in the earth's crust , either horizontal movement and upright movement that resulted in changes in the shape that results in a new pattern called structure diastropik . ( bending , folding , faulting , and cracks ) , as well as the movement of the plates on the ocean floor . Humans can measure how the intensity of earthquakes using seismographs , but the man is utterly unable to predict when an earthquake .
Therefore , the danger posed by an earthquake more powerful than the volcanic eruption . When the earthquake occurred a few events taking place as a result , directly or indirectly , including :
1 ) Various buildings collapsed .
2 ) Ground fissure in the earth's surface , the road to be broken .
3 ) Landslides due to shocks .
4 ) There was a flood , due to damage to the embankment .
5 ) An earthquake on the ocean floor can cause a tsunami ( tidal wave ) .
b ) volcanic eruption
Volcanic eruptions occur because of the activity of magma in the earth's crust which lead to strong pressure out through the top of the volcano .
Dangers posed by volcanic eruptions such as:
1 ) It rained volcanic ash , causing respiratory problems .
2 ) Lava hot , destructive , and deadly anything passed .
3 ) Hot clouds , can turn off yangdilalui living things .
4 ) Gas containing toxins .
5 ) solid material ( rocks , gravel , sand ) , can override housing , etc.
c ) Hurricanes
Hurricanes occur due to air flow from areas of high pressure toward areas of low pressure . This air pressure difference occurs because the air temperature differences are striking . Typhoons for countries in the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic region is a common thing . For regional areas in California , Texas , until in Asia such as Korea and Taiwan , the danger of a catastrophic hurricane season. But for Indonesia only be felt in the middle of 2007 . This suggests that climate change has occurred in Indonesia, which was caused by the phenomenon of global warming . Dangers of hurricanes can be predicted through satellite photos that illustrate the state of the Earth's atmosphere , including the formation of hurricanes picture , direction , and speed. Attacks hurricanes ( cyclones ) can cause environmental damage in the form of :
1 ) Knock down the buildings .
2 ) Damage to agricultural and plantation areas .
3 ) Endangers flight .
4 ) Creates large waves that can sink the ship .
3 Environmental Degradation due to Human Factors
a) The occurrence of pollution ( pollution of air , water , soil , and sound ) as the impact of the industrial area .
b ) The occurrence of flooding , as a result of poor drainage or sewerage system and failure to maintain watersheds and the impact of forest destruction .
c ) The occurrence of landslides , as a direct result of the destruction of forests .
Some human activities that may directly or indirectly have an impact on environmental degradation , among others :
• Illegal Deforestation ( deforestation) .
• Poaching .
• Damaging mangroves .
• Hoarding swamps for settlement .
• Disposal of litter .
• Building wild watersheds ( DAS ) .
3.2 Efforts combating Environmental Damage
1 . Naturally produce oil
There is a process called themo - depolymerization , a process similar to how nature produces oil . For example, if carbon -based libah heated and pressurized precise , capable of producing oil material . Naturally this process takes millions of years . From the experiments they had done before , impurities turkeys can produce about 600 pounds of petroleum .
2 . Removing salt from sea water
The UN noted , the water supply will be very limited for the billions of people in the middle of this century . There is a technology called desalination , namely eliminating levels of salts and minerals from sea water so drinkable . This is a solution that can be done to prevent water crisis . The problem is , this technology is still too expensive and requires considerable energy . Now scientists are looking for a way for desalination can take place with less energy . One way is by evaporation on the water before it goes into the membrane with microscopic pores .

3 . Hydrogen power
Hydrogen fuel is considered as a pollution-free alternative fuels . Energy is produced from a blend of hydrogen and oxygen . The problem is how the hydrogen is produced . Molecules such as water and alcohol should be processed first to mengekstaksi hydrogen that become fuel cells . This process also requires large energy . But at least scientists have tried to make laptops and other devices to power the fuel cell .
4 . solar
Solar energy reaches the earth is made up of photons , can be converted into electricity or heat . Some companies are already successfully using this app . They put solar cells and solar thermal energy collector as a medium .
5 . Converting Heat Sea
Media largest solar collector on Earth is sea water . United States Department of Energy ( U.S. ) calls , the sea can absorb solar heat energy produced is equivalent to 250 billion barrels of oil / day . There is a technology called OTEC is capable of converting ocean thermal energy into electricity . The temperature difference between the sea surface and is able to run the turbine drives a generator . The problem is , this technology is less efficient .
6 . Tidal energy
Sea covers 70 % of the earth 's surface . Large wave of energy saving that can drive turbines to produce electricity . The problem is rather difficult to estimate when the ocean waves large enough to produce enough energy , the solution is to store some of the energy when the wave is big enough . East River of New York City is currently a pilot project with six turbine -powered water waves . While the Portuguese actually already been practicing these technologies and successfully illuminates more than 1500 cheap .
7 . Planted roof house
Plants were planted on the roof of this house is able to absorb heat and reduce carbon dioxide . Imagine if the birds and butterflies fly around our green house .
8 . bioremediation
Bioremediation is utilizing microbes and plants to clean up contamination . One is cleaning the nitrate content in the water with the help of microbes . Or use the plants to neutralize arsenic from the soil . Some native plants did have areas to clean up our earth of various pollutants .
9 . Vandal grave goods
Carbon dioxide is a factor utaa cause of global warming . Energy Information Administration ( EIA ) noted , the carbon dioxide emissions in 2030 at 8000 million metric tons . The simplest method to reduce the content of harmful substances is to bury CO2 sources of income such as a variety of hazardous electronic waste . But scientists are still not sure that harmful gases are stored safely .
10 . Electronic Book
How many tons of paper and how many trees must be cut down to seanteo world if we have to buy up all the newspapers , magazines , novels , textbooks , exercise books , writing paper , toilet paper up . Electronic books or electronic mail , better known as e -books and e-mail provide very significant contribution to survival . With the technology, the production of paper can be reduced , so that the material we do not need to cut down too many trees .

3.3 Environmental Conservation Efforts In Sustainable Development .
The concept of sustainable development is the result of an agreement the Earth Summit in Rio de Jeniro 1992 . It contains two important ideas , namely :
a) The idea of ​​needs , especially basic human needs to sustain life .
b ) The idea of ​​limitations , the limited ability of the environment to meet the needs of both the present and the future .
The characteristics of Environmental Development are as follows :
a) To ensure equity and justice .
b ) Valuing biodiversity .
c ) Using an integrative approach .
d ) Using a long-term view .
1 ) Initiatives by Government
• Removing the Basic Agrarian Law No. . 5 of 1960 which regulates Land .
• Publishes Law. 4 In 1982 , on the Basic Provisions of Environmental Management .
• Impose Government Regulation No. . 24 In 1986 , on the EIA ( Environmental Impact Assessment ) .
• In 1991 , the government established the Environmental Management Agency
2 ) Environmental Conservation Efforts by the Joint Community Government
• Conserving soil ( tableland slopes / hills )
The occurrence of landslides and floods shows events related to land issues . Flooding has caused soil erosion by water flow layer called erosion that results in the loss of soil fertility and soil erosion layer of the earth's surface .
• Preservation of air
a) Promote the planting of trees or ornamental plants around us
b ) Promote the reduction of exhaust emissions or combustion gases ,
c ) Reduce or even avoid the use of chemical gases that can damage the ozone layer in the atmosphere
• Conservation of forest
a) Afforestation or reforestation bare .
b ) Prohibit deforestation arbitrarily .
c ) Implement a system of selective cutting in the cutting down of trees .
d ) Applying cutting - cropping system in logging activities .
e ) Implement severe sanctions for those who violate the regulations on forest management .
• Preservation of marine and coastal
The effort to preserve the ocean and the beach can be done by:
1 ) Perform reclamation to replant mangroves in the area around the beach .
2 ) Prohibit collection of existing rocks around the coast and on the seabed , because the reef is a habitat for fish and marine plants .
3 ) Prohibit the use of explosives and other chemicals in fish.
4 ) Prohibit the use of trawling for fish.
• Preservation of flora and fauna
1 ) Establishing nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries .
2 ) Prohibit poaching activities .
3 ) Promote the greening activities .


3.1 Conclusion
Earth as a living sentient beings have a very important role for the survival , damage caused especially earth is the result of natural phenomena that occur and also the result of human activity itself .
Various efforts were made ​​by the government and citizens should be encouraged to avoid more severe consequences thereof .

3.2 Advice
So , it's good from now on we consider where we take shelter during our life in this world that is Earth . The short length of this depends on the age of the earth we as GOD Almighty 's creatures to care for , maintain , and do not damage the environment and natural surroundings .


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